Student Loans and Its All Types

Most students don’t have the capability to attend college or grad school without borrowing student loans. In fact, two-thirds of students borrowed money to be present in college in 2018, according to a 2019 report from the Institute for College Access and Success. And that percentage continuously steadily increases.

Unfortunately, most as many may not make out what they’re doing. According to Forbes, a 2017 NextGenVest look at of high school seniors deciding between college acceptances and financial aid packages found that 70% of the accused knew nothing about student loans. And that can have an acute impact on your future if you aren’t careful.

Borrowing too much can lead you to ensure a degree that never ends up paying off, keep you stuck in repayment for decennary, or prevent you from meeting other financial goals like purchasing a house, saving for retirement, or starting a family. Consequently, while borrowing remains a fact of life for most students, it’s important to be well-informed.

What Are Student Loans?

Student loans are installment loans. You can borrow money from the U.S. Department of Education (ED), a state government, or a private lender and pay it back in steady monthly installments over a fixed period. This makes them similar to a personal loan.

However, different from a personal loan, which can use to pay for almost anything, a student loan is borrowed especially to cover education expenses. Thus, they’re subject to particular laws and regulations unique to student loans.

This includes the condition that student loans can only be used for expenses personally related to your education. However, that includes not only tuition and books but also anything related to the total cost of attending your school.

The total cost of attendance (COA) is the amount your school certifies that it costs to be available for one year, including expenses such as:

  • Tuition
  • Room and board
  • Books
  • Supplies
  • Transportation
  • Loan fees
  • Various expenses

This means it’s possible to take student loans for covering your rent, car payments, gas, and groceries.

But think about carefully before taking on a very large amount of student loan debt. It’s easy to acquire in over your head. As someone who borrowed six figures to receive a Ph.D., I know this first hand.

Student Loan Interest Rates

The interest rates on student loans vary extensively depending on the type of loan and whether they are federal or private.

Federal Student Loans

The federal student loans depends on the loan type and the payment date of the loan. It’s determined yearly for the 12-month period starting up on July 1 and ending on June 30. In addition, it remains fixed for the life of the loan.

That means you could end up with a better or worse interest rate it is depending on when you borrow.

So students who borrowed after a year are stuck paying a higher rate for the life of their loan than those who borrowed for the 2020-21 educational year.

Also, the interest rates are often higher for graduate students and PLUS loan borrowers than for undergraduate borrowers.

Providentially, however, there are limits on how high the interest rate can go, which are intent on by the Higher Education Act.

Private Student Loans

Private student loans usually have interest rates notably higher than federal student loans. They are intent on market forces the extant federal funds rate and the borrower’s credit score and credit history.

Different from the ED, which doesn’t lend student loans according to a borrower’s credit; private lenders need borrowers to have good credit. Only the most creditworthy borrowers are eligible for the best rates because lenders see them as less of a risk.

Although the ED checks the credit reports of PLUS loan borrowers, it only checks for an adverse credit history — a new history of default on any notably sized loans. It doesn’t check your credit score, nor does it complete your interest rate based on your credit score.

According to acceptable, a marketplace for finding personal lenders, the average private loan interest rate in 2021 for a fixed-rate 10-year loan with a cosigner is 7.64%.

Types of Student Loans

Although the ED is the most usual source of student loans, students borrow from a diversity of lenders.

Federal Student Loans

The massive many student borrowers loan their education with loans from the ED. As National Center for Education Statistics claims, 62.8% of all students borrowed federal loans while the 2015-2016 school year. By contrast, only 15% of all students borrowed from any other sources.

All federal loans presently provide are through the William T. Ford Direct Loan Program. They comprise direct subsidized loans, direct unsubsidized loans, and direct PLUS loans.

Note the program as well includes direct consolidation loans, but you cannot withdraw a consolidation loan until your loans enter into repayment.

Subsidized Direct Loans

Federal direct subsidized loans are accessible to undergraduate borrowers who meet financial require qualifications. The ED covers the interest on their subsidized loans while they are signed on in school at least half-time, for the first six months following graduation, and during deferment.

Although one’s EFC does not commute no matter where a student decides to go to school, the cost of attendance is absolutely dependent on the school. Thus, financial need is eventually determine, where you go to college.

There are limits on how much you can take in subsidized direct loans. You can take the rest you need to finance your education in unsubsidized and other loans, such as PLUS or private loans.

Unsubsidized Direct Loans

Unsubsidized direct loans are accessible to both undergraduate and graduate students. As with subsidized direct loans, there are borrowing caps. But individualistic undergraduate students qualify to borrow even more than their fellow students who are legal dependents of their parents or guardians as are graduate students.

Also different from subsidized direct loans, there is no period during which the ED covers the interest on the loan. Even though borrowers don’t need to begin repaying until six months after they leave school or drop below half-time, interest begins accumulating from the moment the loan. And once the grace period ends, and repayment begins, the interest capitalizes.

It also differs importantly between undergraduate and graduate student loans, with graduate students tending to pay more.

PLUS Loans

You may not capable to cover the cost of your education with federal direct subsidized and unsubsidized loans alone because of their borrowing limits.

For undergraduate students, parents need to do the borrowing. Graduate students are often considered independent, so they can borrow Grad PLUS loans.

Regardless of the type, PLUS loans let you borrow up to the entire cost of attendance at the school, minus any other financial aid.

As with all other direct loans, the interest rate remains certain for the life of the loan, and the rate is decided by the year the loan was disbursed.

The rate is also every time higher than subsidized and unsubsidized direct loans. For instance, for grad PLUS loans disbursed between July 1, 2021, and July 1, 2022, the interest rate is 6.28%.

How to Apply for Federal Student Loans

To apply for any type of federal financial aid, you need to fill out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid by the deadline preceding the academic year of enrolment — Generally the end of June. However, each college or university may have its deadline, so be certain to check with the schools you’re considering attending.

Additionally to grants, the FAFSA also determines the amount of federal student loans you are eligible for. And the most schools use the FAFSA for qualifying you for any institutional aid, including grants, scholarships, and institutional student loans.

The complete application can fill out online. Before you start, you’ll first need to create a Federal Student ID (FSA ID). And if you are a dependent student borrower, your parent or guardian would also need to create one. These let you “sign” the online documents.

You have your FSA IDs, collect the following documents:

  • Social Security numbers or alien registration numbers
  • Federal tax information or tax return
  • Records of income, such as child support or life insurance
  • Cash, savings, and checking account balances
  • Proof of other than the home in which you live

State Student Loans

State loans are provided through multiple state-sponsored programs, including state agencies and state-sponsored non-profits. They are often restricted to state residents or students signing on to in-state colleges and universities.

While they stand separate from federally subsidized loans, state governments often provide better terms and conditions than private loans; they’re normally similar to those for federal direct loans.

For better, some state loan programs provide state-particular loan forgiveness choices for students who stay in the state after graduation.

The interest rates will lower for almost all borrowers and normally remain fixed for the life of the loan. Further, state loans provide pliable repayment options and need no credit check.

Programs vary from one state to another state, and some states have discontinued their lending. But there are many states that continue to provide government-sponsored loans still.

It’s also worth noting that in addition to loan programs, states often offer a wealth of grants and scholarships.

How to Apply For State Student Loans

For the most actual and extant information about any state-specific aid available to you, contact your state’s department of higher education.

Or, to acquire a general idea of what’s available in your state, visit the state-by-state list on The College Investor.

Private Student Loans

Private student loans and federal student loans come with many differences. During both are intended to finance education expenses, the government does not issue, or process private loans. Rather, they are issued by private lenders usually banks.

Not unlike the ED, private lenders check your credit. This makes private loans a barrier for most undergraduate students who have not established a credit history yet.

Further, re-payment options are limited. Even the best private lenders do not match the number of re-payment programs, especially for financial hardship, provided through the ED. And no private lender provides student loan remission.

On the other side, if you’re a parent or student taking to borrow PLUS loans and are capable to qualify for a lower interest rate, it can be worth it to you to investigate borrowing private loans.

Just make sure to max out all other federal, state, scholarship, grant, and work-study choices— and to carefully weigh the benefits and losses— before resorting to a private loan.

How to Apply for Private Student Loans

Shop around to make sure you search a loan with the best rate and terms. Use a marketplace like reliable, which lets you compare rates from up to eight lenders without it affecting your credit.

Institutional Student Loans

Depending on your college, your financial package might comprise institutional help in addition to federal assistance. Institutional assistance comes from the college itself and often includes grants and scholarships.

However, some colleges and universities provide offer their own loan programs. These are provided as a way to help the gap when state and federal assistance falls short of covering the entire cost of education at the college.

How to Apply for Institutional Student Loans

To find out what type of institutional assistance you qualify for, including institutional loans, you will require submitting a FAFSA. However, some colleges in addition require a form called the CSS Profile, which dives deep into your family’s financial situation.

If your school needs it, you can get the form on the College Board’s website. Unless you have a fee renunciation, completing the form costs $25 for your first school and $16 for each additional school. So be certain to increase to your college’s financial assistance department to find out if it needs the CSS Profile or any other additional school-specific forms. Consult directly with a financial assistance officer at your school will make sure you uncover all the opportunities for institutional assistance.

Student Loan Repayment Options

Your re-payment choices vary considerably depending on whether you have federal or private student loans. When it is on state or institutional loans, the options depend on the individual loan program.

Federal Loan Repayment

Federal loans have the best options for repayment, each of which varies by length, competence criteria, and the amount you need to repay. Some repayment programs qualify you even have your loans forgiven after making an in-need number of payments.

Note that you’re not stuck with any specific repayment plan. If your situations change at any time, you can often speak with your loan servicer — the agency which manages your billing and payments on behalf of the ED — about switching repayment plans.

Graduated Repayment

The graduated repayment plan takes after the standard plan in that it has a 10-year limit, but it has graduated payments that grow every two years.


When you combine your student loans, you essentially combine them all into one. Technically, you have issued one large loan that payments all the others. You then have only one loan to worry about.

Private Loan Repayment

This often has a long way fewer repayment options than federal student loans. Most loans don’t have income-based or financial privation options. However, this varies by lender. For instance, some lenders provide a specified number of years you can make interest-only payments on your loan.

Often, private loans have decided repayment terms. So your monthly payoff will depend on the repayment term you agreed to when you applied for the loan, your interest rate, and how much you be in debt.

Student Loan Refinancing

If you have the best credit and good career prospects, you might be capable to qualify for student loan refinancing.

Re-financing is like federal student loan consolidation in that various loans can pay off with one new loan. But, different from consolidation, the private bank issues the loan and not the ED.

You can refinance federal loans also. But always remember that if you refinance federal loans you’ll lose access to federal repayment and remission programs.

The main purpose of re-financing is to score a lower interest rate. As long as you stick to a 10-year repayment term, a lower rate lessens the whole amount you will have to repay.

The best place for starting with an online marketplace like Credible. It matches you with pre-qualified rates from up to eight lenders without affecting your credit.

Choices If You Can’t Afford to Repay Your Student Loans

For those not able to repay their student loans, the ED provides offers a number of remissions, cancellation, and discharge options.  However, each has very exclusive requirements. Deferment and forbearance are also choices for those dealing with short-term financial hardship.


Deferment is a short-term postponement of student loan payments. The ED and private lenders both provide student loan deferment choices. But the ED’s terms are extra generous.

When it comes to federal student loans, a postponement prevents the accrual of interest on direct subsidized loans and Perkins loans. However, interest adds to the principal balance for un-subsidized loans.


If a borrower isn’t capable of a postponement, or their permissible time limit on a deferment has run out, forbearance also lets payments be suspended or reduced.

Federal student loans, it is different from a deferment in that interest continues to accrue on all loans — subsidized or else— during the forbearance. At the end of forbearance, the interest is capitalized, increasing the total amount owed.

For private student loans, there is a difference is in name only since private lenders don’t provide loan subsidies. Typically, postponement terms and reasons are specified in the loan contract, whereas forbearances are granted at the lender’s discretion.


Student loan forgiveness comes after making an in-need number of pays off in an IDR program. At the end of your repayment term, you are eligible to have your outstanding balance wiped out. Forgiveness comes after making 20 to 25 years of payoff, depending on the program you are able for.

But if you work full-time in a public sector or non-profit job during enrolled in IDR, you qualify for Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF). This program provides permission for your loans to be forgiven after 10 years of payments. Remember that in neither situation are the payments required to be continuous.

Debt Settlement

It’s extremely difficult to settle federal student loans. And even when it does happen, borrowers are not likely to get a “good” deal, as noted by the National Consumer Law Center.

This is because federal law decides what collection agencies can provide offers, which is always only a waiver of fees and interest. For any other deal, the collection agency has to get approval from the ED.

On the other side, if you have defaulted on private student loans, it’s possible to arrange a settlement. Private lenders have lots of leeway in what they can get.

Final Word

Student loans provide access to education for many Americans who can’t pay for college out-of-pocket. But it’s important to be careful with how much you borrow. 

Debt can have a notable effect on your future, impacting everything from your career choices to your decisions to get married and start a family. So ask yourself the important questions before borrowing student loans. It pays to be well informed.

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